Resources

SIAC General FAQs

General

SIAC is an independent, neutral and not-for-profit global arbitration institution which provides case management services to the international business community. In terms of its international administered caseload, SIAC is amongst the Top 5 institutions in the world.1

No. In its position as an independent and neutral arbitration institution, SIAC does not act on behalf of any party in arbitration proceedings, nor does it provide any legal advice.

  • Arbitration is a less formal process than court litigation, and it is conducted in private, away from the glare of the media and the public. Parties to the arbitration, as well as arbitrators, are generally obliged to maintain the confidentiality of all matters relating to the arbitration proceedings and the arbitration award.
  • Parties are free to appoint their own arbitrators, engage their preferred counsel and choose the procedures and rules for the conduct of an arbitration.
  • Parties are generally assured of finality once the arbitration award is issued as there are limited avenues for appeal against an arbitration award.
  • The arbitration process can be more cost-effective and efficient than court litigation.

Singapore has a reputation, not only as a hub for transnational trade and investment, but also as a key neutral venue for the resolution of cross-border disputes.

Singapore is also one of the most preferred seats of arbitration in the world.2 A number of factors have contributed to this popularity:

• comprehensive legal infrastructure that is supportive of arbitration, including the adoption of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985);
• robust and efficient legal system, as well as a judiciary that is supportive of arbitration;
• convenient geographical location and political neutrality;
• use of technology and availability of infrastructure that supports new technology;
• world-class facilities and services at Maxwell Chambers for arbitration hearings; and enforceability of Singapore-issued arbitral awards in more than 150 countries through the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 1958) (New York Convention) (subject to any local/domestic legislation and/or requirements.

SIAC Arbitration

SIAC administers a wide range of disputes, including, among others, corporate and commercial, trade and investment, construction/engineering, shipping/maritime, insurance, intellectual property, and banking and finance.

Yes. On 1 January 2017, SIAC released the first edition of the Investment Arbitration Rules of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (IA Rules 2017). The IA Rules 2017 can be applied by agreement in disputes involving a State, State-controlled entity or intergovernmental organisation, whether arising out of a contract, treaty, statute or other instrument.

SIAC has also administered investment disputes under the SIAC Rules and served as the appointing authority in investment disputes under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules.

In 2015, parties from 55 jurisdictions and 6 continents were involved in SIAC arbitrations. The SIAC Secretariat is made up of legal counsel qualified in multiple jurisdictions. The Court of Arbitration of SIAC (SIAC Court), which oversees SIAC’s case management, is comprised of 18 eminent arbitration practitioners and arbitrators from around the world, representing both the common law and civil law traditions.

No. There is no minimum or maximum claim amount for cases to be administered by SIAC.

Yes. SIAC has fluency in English as well as Bahasa Indonesia, Chinese, French, Hindi, Korean, Lithuanian, Malay, Russian and Tagalog. If the arbitration agreement so requires, SIAC is generally able to administer the case in languages other than English. Where necessary, parties may be asked to provide translations of documents.

Yes. SIAC is able to administer arbitrations where the governing law of the contract is not Singapore law. The most commonly selected governing laws are Singapore law, English law and Indian law.

Yes. SIAC is able to administer arbitrations where the seat of arbitration is not Singapore.

No. Under the SIAC Rules 2016, parties may agree on the seat of arbitration; failing such agreement, the Tribunal shall determine the seat of arbitration.

Singapore is the default seat of arbitration for emergency arbitration proceedings unless parties have agreed otherwise.

No. Generally, and subject to any agreement to the contrary or other circumstances, hearings in SIAC-administered arbitrations do not need to be held in Singapore. It is also possible for parties to agree on a ‘documents-only’ arbitration.

Yes. Approximately half of the cases filed with SIAC have absolutely no connection with Singapore.

The mean duration of cases at SIAC is 13.8 months, and the median duration is 11.7 months. Please see the SIAC Costs and Duration Study for a more detailed breakdown on duration. Please note that these are aggregate figures which may not be representative of the duration of any particular case.

The actual duration of any case will depend on, among other factors, the number of arbitrators, total amount in dispute, complexity, schedule for submissions, interlocutory applications, discovery, factual witnesses and/or expert witnesses, hearing days and the respective calendars of parties and the Tribunal.

In the event that parties would like a ‘fast-track’ arbitration, the SIAC Expedited Procedure requires the final award to be issued within 6 months of the constitution of the Tribunal, unless the Registrar extends the time for making the final award.

SIAC’s operating hours are Monday to Friday, 9.00 am to 5.30 pm (Singapore time). Outside of those hours, we remain contactable at all times at casemanagement@siac.org.sg.

Yes. In drawing up international contracts, SIAC recommends that parties include the SIAC Model Clause:

Any dispute arising out of or in connection with this contract, including any question regarding its existence, validity or termination, shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration administered by the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (“SIAC”) in accordance with the Arbitration Rules of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (“SIAC Rules”) for the time being in force, which rules are deemed to be incorporated by reference in this clause.

The seat of the arbitration shall be [Singapore].*

The Tribunal shall consist of ______________ ** arbitrator(s).

The language of the arbitration shall be ________________.

Parties should also include an applicable law clause:

This contract is governed by the laws of ________________. ***

_____________________________________


* Parties should specify the seat of arbitration of their choice. If the parties wish to select an alternative seat to Singapore, please replace “[Singapore]” with the city and country of choice (e.g. “[City, Country]”).
** State an odd number. Either state one, or state three.
*** State the country or jurisdiction.

Commencing an arbitration at SIAC

No. Unless there is an arbitration clause in the contract or parties have a post-dispute agreement to refer the dispute to arbitration at SIAC or arbitration in accordance with the SIAC Rules, SIAC will not be able to administer the arbitration.

No. An arbitration agreement referring to “arbitration in Singapore” may not sufficiently provide for SIAC-administered arbitration, although it may provide for ad hoc arbitration seated in Singapore.

To ensure that parties’ intention for arbitration at SIAC under the SIAC Rules is reflected in the contract, parties may wish to use the SIAC Model Clause.

Yes. The President of the Court of Arbitration of SIAC (President) is the default appointing authority in Singapore under the International Arbitration Act (Cap. 143A) and the Arbitration Act (Cap. 10). As such, where parties require an arbitrator to be appointed in an ad hoc arbitration seated in Singapore and parties have failed to agree on the appointment of an arbitrator, SIAC can assist in making such appointments. An appointment fee is payable to SIAC for such appointments.

SIAC also frequently acts as the appointing authority for arbitrations conducted under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules.

Yes. SIAC may serve as an appointing authority to appoint experts to resolve technical disputes outside of arbitration. The procedure for appointment varies depending on the circumstances of the case.

A party who wishes to engage SIAC’s appointment service for experts should submit a written request to SIAC. SIAC does not prescribe any specific form/format for such request but it should include the names, nationalities and contact details of the parties, a copy of the contract or other instrument out of or in relation to which the dispute arises, the agreement on the appointment of the expert, a brief statement of the nature of the dispute, the quantum of the claim(s) and any supporting documents.

An appointment fee is payable to SIAC for such appointments, and the fees payable are the same as the SIAC Schedule of Fees for ad hoc appointments of arbitrators.

 Yes. SIAC is able to administer arbitrations under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (1976, 2010 and 2013 versions) where parties have agreed to SIAC administering such arbitrations. SIAC has issued Practice Notes to provide guidance on its administration of cases under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules.

Provided that parties have agreed to refer a dispute to arbitration at SIAC or arbitration in accordance with the SIAC Rules, an arbitration may be commenced by filing a Notice of Arbitration with the Registrar of the Court of Arbitration of SIAC (Registrar), together with payment of the requisite Case Filing Fee.

Under SIAC’s Schedule of Fees, the Case Filing Fee for Singapore parties is SGD 2,140 (inclusive of 7% GST). The Case Filing Fee for overseas parties is SGD 2,000. The Case Filing Fee is payable by the Claimant.

The Notice of Arbitration may be filed with SIAC by hand, registered post, courier service, email or facsimile. The Notice of Arbitration should be addressed to the Registrar. SIAC’s contact details are as follows:

Email: casemanagement@siac.org.sg (email size should not exceed 5MB)
Fax.: +65 6713 9778
Address: 28 Maxwell Road, #03-01 Maxwell Chambers Suite, Singapore 069120

A copy of the Notice of Arbitration should be sent to the Respondent; the Claimant should notify SIAC as to the mode of service and the date of service.

No. SIAC does not provide a template for the Notice of Arbitration, and parties are free to submit the Notice of Arbitration in their preferred format. The Notice of Arbitration, however, should comply with the formal requirements set out in Rule 3.1 of the SIAC Rules 2016.

There are two options open to the Claimant in this situation. The Claimant may either:

(i) file one Notice of Arbitration in respect of each arbitration agreement invoked, and concurrently submit an application to consolidate the arbitrations; or
(ii) file a single Notice of Arbitration in respect of all arbitration agreements invoked which shall include a statement identifying each contract and arbitration agreement invoked and a description of how the requirements for consolidation are satisfied.

In the above circumstances, the Registrar will accept a single Case Filing Fee in the first instance, subject to the decision on the application for consolidation.

Prior to the constitution of any Tribunal in the arbitrations sought to be consolidated, an application for consolidation of two or more arbitrations pending under the SIAC Rules 2016 is filed with the Registrar. The SIAC Court will then decide whether to grant, in whole or in part, the application for consolidation.

If a party seeks to consolidate two or more arbitrations pending under the SIAC Rules 2016 after the constitution of any Tribunal in the arbitrations sought to be consolidated, the application for consolidation is made to the Tribunal.

The Response to the Notice of Arbitration may be filed with SIAC by hand, registered post, courier service, email or facsimile. The Response to the Notice of Arbitration should be addressed to the Registrar. SIAC’s contact details are as follows:

Email: casemanagement@siac.org.sg (email size should not exceed 5MB)
Fax.: +65 6713 9778
Address: 28 Maxwell Road, #03-01 Maxwell Chambers Suite, Singapore 069120

A copy of the Response to the Notice of Arbitration should be sent to the Claimant; the Respondent should notify SIAC as to the mode of service and the date of service.

Yes. Under the SIAC Rules 2016, a party to an arbitration that is pending under the SIAC Rules 2016 may apply to join a non-party in the proceedings. Prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, the application is filed with the Registrar. The SIAC Court will then decide whether to grant, in whole or in part, the application for joinder.

After the constitution of the Tribunal in the arbitration proceedings in which the non-party is to be joined, the application for joinder will be decided by the Tribunal.

Yes. Under the SIAC Rules 2016, a non-party may apply to be joined in an arbitration that is pending under the SIAC Rules 2016. Prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, the SIAC Court will decide whether to grant, in whole or in part, the application for joinder. After the constitution of the Tribunal in the arbitration proceedings in which the non-party is to be joined, the application for joinder will be decided by the Tribunal.

Where appropriate, a non-party may file the application for joinder with the Registrar who will then transmit the application to the SIAC Court or the Tribunal, respectively.

Yes. A Respondent who wishes to bring a counterclaim in pending arbitration proceedings must pay a Counterclaim Filing Fee for the counterclaim. Under SIAC’s Schedule of Fees, the Counterclaim Filing Fee for Singapore parties is SGD 2,140 (inclusive of 7% GST). The Counterclaim Filing Fee for overseas parties is SGD 2,000.

If the Claimant does not pay the Case Filing Fee, the Registrar may determine that the Notice of Arbitration is not complete, or not substantially complete, and the arbitration will not be commenced.

If the Respondent fails to pay the Counterclaim Filing Fee, the counterclaim may be deemed as not filed and the arbitration will proceed without any counterclaim.

Payments may be made by a local cheque payable to “Singapore International Arbitration Centre” or by bank transfer to SIAC’s bank account. For updated bank details, please contact SIAC by telephone at +65 6713 9777 or by email at casemanagement@siac.org.sg.

Costs of the Arbitration

The “costs of the arbitration” are defined in the SIAC Rules 2016 as including:

(i) the Tribunal’s fees and expenses and the Emergency Arbitrator’s fees and expenses, where applicable;
(ii) SIAC’s administration fees and expenses; and
(iii) the costs of any expert appointed by the Tribunal and of any other assistance reasonably required by the Tribunal.

“Costs of the arbitration” do not include parties’ legal fees and other costs.

Arbitrations at SIAC operate on an ad valorem system, in which the costs of the arbitration are generally based on the value of the claim.3

When an arbitration is first commenced, SIAC will estimate the maximum costs of the arbitration based on the total value of the claim(s) and counterclaim(s) in the arbitration proceedings in accordance with the SIAC Schedule of Fees. SIAC will then call for deposits based on these estimated maximum costs of the arbitration.

The actual costs of the arbitration are only determined at the end of the arbitration proceedings based on a proportion of the estimated maximum costs of arbitration.

If parties are unable to quantify the amount of the claim or the counterclaim at the time the deposits are due, the Registrar will make a provisional estimate of the costs of the arbitration based on the nature of the controversy and the circumstances of the case. This estimate may be adjusted in light of such information as may subsequently become available.

Parties may wish to use SIAC’s online Fee Calculator to arrive at an approximation of the costs of arbitration. Parties may alternatively consult SIAC’s Schedule of Fees to calculate the maximum costs of arbitration.

Based on the SIAC Costs and Duration Study, the mean total costs of arbitration for all cases at SIAC is SGD 109,729 (USD 80,337), and the median total costs of arbitration is SGD 40,416 (USD 29,567). Please note that these are aggregate figures which may not be representative of the total costs of arbitration of any particular case.

The actual costs of arbitration of any case will depend on, among other factors, the number of arbitrators, total amount in dispute, complexity, work performed by the Tribunal and SIAC, and overall duration of the proceedings.

The estimated costs of arbitration using SIAC’s online Fee Calculator do not include expenses that may be incurred in the arbitration (e.g. Tribunal’s expenses and SIAC’s expenses) and any applicable taxes.

SIAC will generally apply a 15% mark-up on the estimated maximum costs of arbitration in cases where a sole arbitrator or a three-member Tribunal is appointed, to account for such expenses and disbursements.

SIAC may also call for additional deposits over and above these amounts as may be appropriate in certain cases.

Party Representation & Arbitrators

Yes. SIAC maintains a Panel of Arbitrators comprised of experienced, qualified and well-known arbitrators from over 40 jurisdictions. SIAC also maintains a specialist Panel of Arbitrators for Intellectual Property Disputes.

 Yes. Parties to an arbitration are free to nominate arbitrators of their choice. It is not necessary for parties’ nominees to be on SIAC’s Panel of Arbitrators.

No. Subject to the circumstances of the case, it is not necessary for arbitrators to be lawyers or to have a legal background. As an example, there are engineers, quantity surveyors, architects and master mariners who are on SIAC’s Panel of Arbitrators.

Please send a completed application form and your curriculum vitae (CV) highlighting your arbitration experience, together with a non-refundable processing fee of SGD 535 (being SGD 500 plus 7% Goods and Services Tax (GST)) which is applicable to both Singapore and international applicants. Your application may also be accompanied by a covering letter and references.

The applicable form and CV template may be downloaded here.

Payments may be made by a local cheque payable to “Singapore International Arbitration Centre”. Please indicate your name, contact number and the identification of “Panel Application” on the reverse side of the cheque. Local cheques should be sent to:

The Registrar
Singapore International Arbitration Centre
28 Maxwell Road #03-01
Maxwell Chambers Suite
Singapore 069120

Alternatively, payments may be made by bank transfer to SIAC’s bank account. For updated bank details, please contact us by telephone at +65 6713 9777 or by email at panel@siac.org.sg.

No. Parties to a dispute do not necessarily need to be represented by lawyers in SIAC arbitrations, although it is recommended.

Yes. There are no restrictions on foreign law firms or foreign counsel acting in arbitrations in Singapore. However, if the dispute involves issues of Singapore law, parties may wish to engage Singapore counsel to advise on such issues.

Conduct of Arbitration

The Expedited Procedure is a special, ‘fast-track’ procedure that is available by application in SIAC arbitrations. Where a case is conducted under the Expedited Procedure, the final award will be issued within 6 months of the constitution of the Tribunal, unless the Registrar extends the time for making the final award.

A party may apply to the Registrar in writing for arbitration proceedings to be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure where any of the following criteria is satisfied:

(a) the amount in dispute does not exceed the equivalent amount of SGD 6,000,000, representing the aggregate of the claim, counterclaim and any defence of set-off;
(b) the parties agree to the Expedited Procedure; or
(c) in cases of exceptional urgency.

A case conducted under the SIAC Expedited Procedure will typically be heard before a sole arbitrator Tribunal, unless the President decides otherwise.

The President will determine whether the arbitration proceedings will be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure.

A party may make an application to the Tribunal for the case to be taken off the Expedited Procedure.

The Emergency Arbitrator procedure is a special procedure whereby an Emergency Arbitrator is appointed to hear applications for urgent interim relief prior to the constitution of the Tribunal. SIAC was the first Asian arbitration institution to offer this procedure and has received more than 50 applications for the appointment of an Emergency Arbitrator since 1 July 2010.

A party in need of emergency relief may, concurrent with or following the filing of a Notice of Arbitration but prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, make an application for the appointment of an Emergency Arbitrator. The party shall notify the Registrar and all other parties in writing of the nature of the relief sought and the reasons why such relief is required on an emergency basis. The application shall also set forth the reasons why the party is entitled to such relief. Such notice must include a statement certifying that all other parties have been notified or an explanation of the steps taken in good faith to notify other parties.

The President shall, if he determines that SIAC should accept the application for emergency interim relief, seek to appoint an Emergency Arbitrator within one day of receipt by the Registrar of such application and payment of the administration fee and deposits.

Based on SIAC’s Schedule of Fees, applications for the appointment of an Emergency Arbitrator must be accompanied by payment of a non-refundable fee of SGD 5,350 (inclusive of 7% GST) for Singapore parties, or SGD 5,000 for overseas parties. The deposits towards the Emergency Arbitrator’s fees and expenses are fixed at SGD 30,000 unless the Registrar determines otherwise. The Emergency Arbitrator’s fees are fixed at SGD 25,000 unless the Registrar determines otherwise. To avoid delay, it is recommended that a party applying for the appointment of an Emergency Arbitrator include payment for both the application fee and the deposits in its application.

In addition to the Expedited Procedure, the SIAC Rules 2016 offer a procedure for the early dismissal of claims and defences. A party may make an application to the Tribunal for the early dismissal of a claim or defence on the basis that:

(a) a claim or defence is manifestly without legal merit; or
(b) a claim or defence is manifestly outside the jurisdiction of the Tribunal.

SIAC was the first major commercial arbitration institution to include this provision in its Rules.

Awards in SIAC arbitrations are generally enforceable outside Singapore. SIAC and Singapore awards have been enforced in various jurisdictions, including Australia, China, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, UK and USA.

Yes. Pursuant to Rule 32.3 of the SIAC Rules 2016, prior to making any award, the Tribunal is required to submit the award in draft form to the Registrar. The Registrar may suggest modifications to the form of the award and, without affecting the Tribunal’s liberty of decision, may also draw the Tribunal’s attention to points of substance. No award shall be made by a Tribunal until it has been approved by the Registrar as to its form.

Other Commonly Asked Questions

Yes. Subject to the terms of the arbitration agreement, SIAC accepts requests for appointment of arbitrators in ad hoc cases. SIAC is also able to perform fund-holding services in ad hoc arbitrations.

Under SIAC’s Schedule of Fees, the appointment fee for Singapore parties is SGD 3,210 for one arbitrator, SGD 4,280 for two arbitrators and SGD 5,350 for three arbitrators. The fees are inclusive of 7% GST.

The appointment fee for overseas parties is SGD 3,000 for one arbitrator, SGD 4,000 for two arbitrators and SGD 5,000 for three arbitrators.

There are no separate appointment fees in SIAC-administered arbitrations.

Payments may be made by a local cheque payable to “Singapore International Arbitration Centre” or by bank transfer to SIAC’s bank account. For updated bank details, please contact us by telephone at +65 6713 9777 or by email at casemanagement@siac.org.sg.

Under the International Arbitration Act (Cap. 143A), the Registrar and Deputy Registrar are persons appointed to authenticate any award or arbitration agreement or to certify copies thereof. Please see SIAC’s “Authentication & Certification Service” for more information on this process.

In arbitration, the arbitrator looks into the legal rights and wrongs of a dispute and makes a decision. Once the arbitrator has arrived at a decision, it is binding on parties whether they agree with it or not. It is very much like the way a court case is decided by a judge, except that the process does not take place in a courtroom, and it is not open to the public. As in a court case, there is usually a winning and a losing party in arbitration.

In mediation, the mediator helps parties to settle their disputes through a process of discussion and narrowing of differences. The mediator helps the parties to arrive at an agreed solution. He does not decide the dispute. A successful mediation results in an agreement signed by the parties, whereas a contested arbitration results in a decision by the arbitrator. In mediation, there is no such thing as a winning or losing party because there is no binding decision. Instead, the parties are free to agree on both legal and non-legal solutions to the dispute which best suit their respective interests and needs.

SIAC handles the administration of arbitrations in Singapore. The Singapore International Mediation Centre (SIMC) manages international mediation cases in Singapore.

For more information on SIMC, please click here.

Parties who have an arbitration agreement may wish to refer their dispute to mediation, either before they commence arbitration or in the course of the arbitration.

“Arb-Med-Arb” is a process whereby a dispute is first referred to arbitration before mediation is attempted. If parties are able to settle their dispute through mediation, their mediated settlement may be recorded by the Tribunal in the form of a consent award. The consent award is generally accepted as an arbitral award, and, subject to any local legislation and/or requirements, is generally enforceable in more than 150 countries under the New York Convention. If parties are unable to settle their dispute through mediation, they may continue with the arbitration proceedings.

Under the SIAC-SIMC Arb-Med-Arb Protocol, the arbitrator(s) and the mediator(s) will be separately and independently appointed by SIAC and SIMC respectively, under the applicable arbitration rules and mediation rules of each institution. Unless the parties otherwise agree, the arbitrator(s) and the mediator(s) will generally be different persons.

Parties wishing to take advantage of this tiered dispute resolution mechanism as administered by SIAC and SIMC, may consider incorporating the Singapore Arb-Med-Arb Clause in their contracts:

Any dispute arising out of or in connection with this contract, including any question regarding its existence, validity or termination, shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration administered by the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (“SIAC”) in accordance with the Arbitration Rules of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (“SIAC Rules”) for the time being in force, which rules are deemed to be incorporated by reference in this clause.

The seat of arbitration shall be [Singapore].*

The Tribunal shall consist of ______________________ arbitrator(s).**

The language of the arbitration shall be ________________.

The parties further agree that following the commencement of arbitration, they will attempt in good faith to resolve the Dispute through mediation at the Singapore International Mediation Centre (“SIMC”) in accordance with the SIAC-SIMC Arb-Med-Arb Protocol for the time being in force. Any settlement reached in the course of mediation shall be referred to the arbitral tribunal appointed by SIAC and may be made a consent award on agreed terms.

_____________________________________

* Parties should specify the seat of arbitration of their choice. If parties wish to select an alternative seat to Singapore, please replace “[Singapore]” with the city and county of choice.
** State an odd number. Either state one, or state three.

As of 20 May 2021, SIAC is registered as a permanent arbitral institution (PAI) under Russia’s Federal Law on Arbitration.

As a PAI, SIAC is authorised to administer international commercial arbitrations where the seat of arbitration is Russia. In particular, SIAC is authorised to administer certain types of corporate disputes as defined in Russian law i.e. disputes arising out of the ownership of shares in Russian legal entities or the management thereof. This includes disputes arising from shareholders’ agreements, joint venture agreements, share sale, pledge and option agreements.

SIAC is unable to administer domestic Russian disputes.

_____________________________________
1 MARK MANGAN, LUCY REED & JOHN CHOONG, A GUIDE TO THE SIAC ARBITRATION RULES 16 (2014).
2 See ICC, “ICC report confirms Singapore as a leading Asia arbitration hub” (6 June 2016) (online: http://www.iccwbo.org/News/Articles/2016/ICC-report-confirms-Singapore-as-a-leading-Asia-arbitration-hub/); see also White & Case LLP, “The 2010 International Arbitration Survey: Choices of International Arbitration” (2010).
3 Prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, parties may agree on alternate forms of remuneration for the Tribunal’s fees (e.g. an hourly rate).

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Andres Larrea Savinovich

Andres Larrea Savinovich, DEPUTY COUNSEL

Andres is an Ecuadorian-qualified lawyer. Prior to joining SIAC, Andres worked as a Senior Associate at an Ecuadorian law firm for twelve years where he represented parties in commercial and investment arbitrations across a range of sectors, including natural resources, mining, insurance, telecommunications and construction. Andres has been appointed as an arbitral secretary in over 60 arbitration cases administered by the most important arbitration centres in Ecuador.

Andres holds an LL.M. from McGill University. While he was at McGill he served as an associate editor for the McGill Journal of Dispute Resolution. He is a member of the LATAM Subcommittee of the Campaign for Greener Arbitrations, CyberArb, Rising Arbitrators Initiative and the Club of Arbitration of Spain.

Andres is fluent in English and Spanish.

Email: andresfrancisco@siac.org.sg

LIM SHI JEAN, COUNSEL (TEAM LEAD)

Shi Jean graduated with an LL.B. (Hons) from the Singapore Management University School of Law. She is admitted to practice as an Advocate & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Singapore. Prior to joining SIAC, she practiced shipping and commercial litigation at a law firm in Singapore.

Email: shijeanlim@siac.org.sg

YAS BANIFATEMI

YAS BANIFATEMI, MEMBER

Ms Yas Banifatemi is a founding partner of Gaillard Banifatemi Shelbaya Disputes. Prior to founding Gaillard Banifatemi Shelbaya Disputes, she served as Shearman & Sterling’s Global International Arbitration Practice Group Leader, Public International Law Team Leader and Lead Industry Coordinator for Energy. She is a former Vice-President of the ICC International Court of Arbitration, a former member of the LCIA Court and a member of the ICSID panel of arbitrators.

She represents States, State entities and companies in international arbitration cases under the ICSID, UNCITRAL, ICC, LCIA, SCC, CRCICA, HKIAC, DIS and Swiss Arbitration Rules, with particular focus on international investment and energy disputes. She also advises States, State entities and corporations on a variety of public international law issues, such as the law of treaties, State responsibility, State contracts, immunity of States and other.

Yas Banifatemi has served as Chair and arbitrator in numerous commercial and investor-State arbitrations, including international arbitration proceedings under the Rules of the ICC, ICSID, SCC, LCIA, CRCICA, SIAC, HKIAC and the Swiss Rules of International Arbitration, as well as in ad hoc proceedings.

A Visiting Lecturer in Law at Yale and Harvard Law Schools, Yas Banifatemi also teaches International Investment Law at Panthéon-Sorbonne University. She has written extensively on international arbitration and public international law issues.

JOHN P. BANG

JOHN P. BANG, MEMBER

Mr John P Bang is a senior partner (foreign attorney) at Peter & Kim, a specialized law firm in international arbitration. He was previously the head and co-founder of the International Arbitration and Cross-Border Litigation Practice at Bae, Kim & Lee LLC.

Over the past 20 years, he has represented parties in over 250 domestic and international arbitral proceedings seated in Asia, Europe and North America, ranging from multi-million to multi-billion dollar disputes. He has also served as sole arbitrator, co-arbitrator and chair in arbitral disputes under various arbitral institutions.

John is recognised as a leading arbitration practitioner in industry rankings such as Who’s Who Legal, Chambers Asia and Asialaw Leading Lawyers. In 2016, he was Asialaw’s “Disputes Star of the Year” for South Korea, and in 2018, Who’s Who Legal listed him as a Thought Leader in international arbitration. In April 2018, he received a Special Commendation from the Minister of Justice of Korea for his contribution to the development of arbitration in Korea. Chambers & Partners quotes a client as praising him for his “most-effective advocacy, comprehensive understanding of Korean disputes and dedication to detail”.

John is presently a member of the Executive Committee of the Korea Council for International Arbitration and a senior officer in the IBA Litigation Committee. Previously, he was a member of the drafting committee for the ICCA Sourcebook for Logistical Matters in Procedural Orders. He also served as Federal Law Clerk to the Honorable Kathryn C. Ferguson, USBJ, New Jersey.

DR CLAUDIA ANNACKER, MEMBER

Dr. Claudia Annacker is a Partner in the Paris office of Dechert LLP. She focuses her practice on international arbitration and litigation and public international law matters, in particular investor-State disputes, inter-State disputes, disputes involving international organizations and human rights cases. She has represented states and investors in more than 30 investment treaty arbitrations and regularly advises investors on structuring their investments to benefit from, or improve, investment treaty protections.

Dr. Annacker also acts as arbitrator.  She has been appointed to the ICSID Panel of Arbitrators in 2020.

Dr. Annacker received a Ph.D. with high honors (1992) and a venia legendi et docendi (habilitation) for public international law (1997) from the University of Vienna. Dr. Annacker is an adjunct professor at the University of Vienna, where she teaches advanced research seminars in international responsibility and international dispute settlement and has been a visiting professor at the Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense University. She has published widely in the fields of international arbitration and public international law.

CATHERINE AMIRFAR

CATHERINE AMIRFAR, MEMBER

Catherine Amirfar is a litigation partner at Debevoise & Plimpton LLP. She co-chairs the firm’s International Dispute Resolution Group and Public International Law Group.

Her practice focuses on public international law, international commercial and treaty arbitration, and international and complex commercial litigation. She is also a member of the firm’s Management Committee.

Ms Amirfar has been ranked among the leading international arbitration practitioners by Chambers Global, which has described her as “very composed, intelligent and a master of investment arbitration.”

Prior to rejoining Debevoise in 2016, Ms Amirfar spent two years as the Counselor on International Law to the Legal Adviser at the U.S. Department of State. During her tenure as Counselor, Ms. Amirfar advised the State Department on its most significant litigation matters involving international law and foreign relations. She received the Superior Honor Award for her service to the Department.

Ms Amirfar serves as the President of the American Society of International Law and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Law Institute, and the Advisory Committee on International Law for the U.S. Department of State. She has written extensively on international arbitration, the relationship between international law and U.S. domestic law, international human rights and humanitarian law, investor-state disputes, and the law of consular and diplomatic immunities.

JOSE AMADO

JOSE AMADO, MEMBER

Mr. Jose Daniel Amado is a founding partner of Miranda & Amado in Lima and teaches international arbitration law at the Catholic University of Peru. His professional practice focuses on Corporate Law, Infrastructure Projects and International Arbitration. He has acted in some of the most important cross-border transactions and international disputes that have taken place in Peru in the last two decades.

Mr. Amado is regularly ranked as an international arbitration and corporate law expert by publications such as Who’sWhoLegal, GAR100, Chambers, Legal500, Best Lawyers and IFLR1000 and, in 2009, was named “Latin American Law Firm Leader of the Year” by LatinLawyer magazine. Mr. Amado regularly acts as party counsel, arbitrator and expert witness in domestic and international arbitrations.

From 2001 to 2002, Mr. Amado was Deputy to the Prime Minister of Peru and Chief of Advisors to the Council of Ministers. From 2013 to 2014, Mr. Amado was a Visiting Fellow at the University of Cambridge’s Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, as well as Scholar-in-Residence at Wilmer Hale’s international arbitration group. From 2014 to 2016, Mr. Amado was a Member of the Arbitration Court of the Lima Chamber of Commerce.

Mr. Amado is the Chair of the Court of Arbitration of AmCham Peru´s International Arbitration Centre. He is also a Member of the ICC Arbitration Commission, of SIAC´s Users Council and of the Award Scrutiny Commission of CIAM (Madrid). Mr. Amado is further the Website Officer of the IBA Arbitration Committee and a Member of the Board of Advisors of Delos Dispute Resolution.

Mr. Amado received his LL.B. degree summa cum laude from the Catholic University of Peru and he holds an LL.M. from Harvard University, where he was awarded the Laylin Prize of Public International Law.

Mr. Amado is the author or co-author of several articles, essays and publications including a book titled “Arbitrating the Conduct of International Investors” (Cambridge University Press, 2018).

OLUFUNKE ADEKOYA

OLUFUNKE ADEKOYA, MEMBER

Funke Adekoya is a Senior Advocate of Nigeria and partner and head of the arbitration practice at ǼLEX, a Lagos Nigeria based law firm with offices in Accra, Ghana. She has dual nationality (Nigerian/British) and is dual qualified; in addition to having qualified as a legal practitioner in Nigeria in 1975, she was admitted as a solicitor in England and Wales in 2004 where she maintains a current practicing licence. She is a Chartered Arbitrator of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and a Governing Board Member of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration.

In addition to being appointed as counsel in arbitration related litigation, she also represents parties as counsel or arbitrator in commercial arbitrations. Her appointments have been both ad-hoc and institutional under the LCIA, ICC and ICSID Rules, where she has acted as either sole or party-appointed arbitrator or chaired arbitral panels in disputes in the commercial, energy and natural resources, construction and infrastructure sectors.

She is ranked in Chambers Global and in Who’s Who Legal Arbitration, is listed on the Chairman’s Panel of Arbitrators at ICSID as well as the panels of many other international arbitration institutions, and is currently a member of the ICC Africa Commission.

TOBY LANDAU KC, VICE PRESIDENT

Toby Landau KC is a barrister and arbitrator, and a member of the Bars of England & Wales, Singapore, New York, BVI and Northern Ireland (and the DIFC). He practices from Duxton Hill Chambers in Singapore, and as a Sole Practitioner in London.

As Arbitrator, he has sat as President and Co-Arbitrator in numerous Investor-State and commercial disputes worldwide, under most of the leading institutional and ad hoc rules. As Counsel, he has argued hundreds of major international investor-State and commercial arbitrations, as well as many ground-breaking arbitration cases in Court (including Halliburton v Chubb; Enka v Chubb; Dallah v Pakistan; Jivraj v Hashwani; Ust-Kamenogorsk v AES; IPCO v NNPC in the UK Supreme Court, and First Media v Astro in the Courts of Singapore and Hong Kong).

He is Visiting Professor at Kings College London; a Court Member of SIAC; previously LCIA Court Member and SCC Board Member; UK delegate to the UNCITRAL Working Group on Arbitration (1994-2013); and a draftsman of the English Arbitration Act 1996 as well as many other laws and arbitration rules in several countries. Since April 2012, he has been a member of the Panel of Advisors of the Attorney-General of Singapore.

CAVINDER BULL

CAVINDER BULL SC, VICE PRESIDENT

Mr Cavinder Bull, SC is a Vice-President of the Court of Arbitration and the Chief Executive Officer of Drew & Napier LLC. He is also a member of the Governing Board of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) and Vice-President of the Asia Pacific Regional Arbitration Group. He was Deputy Chairman of the SIAC from October 2010 to April 2017.

Mr Bull has an active practice in complex litigation and international arbitration. He has acted as counsel in numerous international arbitrations and has represented governments, financial institutions and corporations from various parts of the world. He is also experienced in investor-state disputes, where he has acted as both counsel and arbitrator. Legal 500 praised him as a “very astute lawyer on strategy and law” while Chambers & Partners describes him as a “consummate advocate”; a “very rare talent in disputes”; and says that “complex arbitrations are his specialisation”.

Mr Bull is on the ICSID Panel of Arbitrators and has been appointed as an arbitrator in ICSID, PCA, NAFTA, ICC, SIAC, LCIA, UNCITRAL and ad hoc arbitrations.

Mr Bull graduated with First Class Honours in law from Oxford University and has a Masters in law from Harvard Law School. He has been called to the Bar in Singapore, New York and England & Wales. He was appointed Senior Counsel in 2008.

DUONG HOANG, DEPUTY COUNSEL

Duong graduated with an LL.B (advanced programme) from the Ho Chi Minh University of Law.

Prior to joining SIAC, Duong worked as a counsel at a leading international arbitration centre in Vietnam where she administered domestic and international arbitration matters conducted under the auspice of the arbitration law of Vietnam and UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. She thereafter practiced international arbitration with the Singapore office of a leading Vietnam-based law firm where she focused on Vietnam-related matters in construction and petroleum sectors. 

Duong speaks Vietnamese and English.

Email: duonghoang@siac.org.sg

CHEN WU

CHEN WU, ASSOCIATE COUNSEL

Chen graduated from Fudan University (Bachelor’s degree in law), Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (LL.M. in International Trade Law) and Georgetown University (LL.M. in International Business and Economic Law).

Prior to joining SIAC, Chen worked as legal officer at the Court of Justice of the European Union, and practiced WTO dispute settlement and trade remedy investigation at law firms in Brussels and Beijing.

Chen is qualified to practice law in China and New York State. She speaks Chinese (Mandarin and Shanghainese), English and French.

Email: chenwu@siac.org.sg

JAYDEN ZHAO

JAYDEN ZHAO, ASSOCIATE COUNSEL

Jayden graduated with an LL.B. (Hons) from the Singapore Management University School of Law. He is admitted to practice as an Advocate & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Singapore. Prior to joining SIAC, he practiced arbitration and litigation at a law firm in Singapore.

Jayden is fluent in English and Mandarin.

Email: jaydenzhao@siac.org.sg

LYNNETTE LEE, COUNSEL

Lynnette graduated with an LL.B. (Hons) from Monash Law School, Melbourne, Australia and holds a Bachelor of Communication Studies (Hons) from the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. She is admitted to practice as an Advocate & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Singapore. During law school, Lynnette participated in moot court competitions, which included representing Monash at the FDI Moot.

Prior to joining SIAC, Lynnette practiced with Singapore law firms and worked at the chambers of a leading international arbitrator. She also worked with the Legal Aid Bureau in Singapore as a legal executive.

Email: lynnettelee@siac.org.sg

THEA ELYSSA VEGA, COUNSEL

Prior to joining the SIAC, Thea was an Associate Solicitor at the Office of the Solicitor General in the Philippines where she handled criminal, civil, international commercial, and investor-state arbitration cases. She was part of the UNCITRAL Working Group III on Investor-State Dispute Settlement Reform, wherein she participated in inter-agency discussions on alternative dispute settlement.

Thea earned her Juris Doctor Degree (J.D.) from the Ateneo de Manila University School of Law in the Philippines in 2016 and was admitted to the Philippine Bar in 2017. While she was in law school, she helped organise national moot court competitions, joined inter-class debates, and interned at the Philippine Supreme Court.

Email: theavega@siac.org.sg

DEXTER CHENG, COUNSEL

Dexter graduated with a LL.B. (Hons) from the National University of Singapore. He is admitted to practice as an Advocate & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Singapore. Prior to joining SIAC, Dexter trained with a boutique law firm in Singapore which specialises in corporate and commercial law.

Dexter is fluent in English and Madarin.

Email: dextercheng@siac.org.sg

PAULINE LOW, COUNSEL

Pauline is a Malaysian-qualified lawyer with a background in litigation and arbitration. Prior to joining SIAC, Pauline practiced at a top-tier law firm in Malaysia. She read law at the University of Malaya under a full scholarship from an international oil & gas company and was placed on the Dean’s List. During her time in law school, Pauline was active in moot court competitions and represented Malaysia in international competitions.

Pauline is fluent in English and Bahasa Malaysia and a competent speaker of Cantonese and Mandarin. She also has a good understanding of Bahasa Indonesia.

Email: paulinelow@siac.org.sg

NIGEL BLACKABY

NIGEL BLACKABY QC, MEMBER

Nigel Blackaby QC is a partner of Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer in Washington DC and global head of the firm’s international arbitration group. He has acted as counsel and arbitrator in over 100 ad hoc and institutional arbitrations (including over 40 investment arbitrations for investors and states). He has particular expertise in Latin America and energy and mining disputes. Recent cases include:

• Burlington Resources, Inc. v Ecuador (ICSID);
• Repsol v Argentina (ICSID);
• Pan American Energy v Bolivia (ICSID);
• Total, CMS, Suez, BG Group, Aguas de Barcelona and National Grid (among others) v Argentina;
• Crystallex International Corporation v Venezuela (ICSID Additional Facility)
• Tenaris and Talta v Venezuela

Nigel is a former president of the IBA Subcommittee on Investment Arbitration, an editor since 1995 of Arbitration International, co-author of Redfern and Hunter on International Arbitration (6th edition, Oxford, 2015), Guide to ICSID Arbitration (2nd edition, Kluwer, 2010) and International Arbitration in Latin America (Kluwer, 2003). He is an adjunct professor of international arbitration at American University Washington College of Law.

He is a graduate of the University of Exeter (UK) and the Université d’Aix-Marseille III (France) and has conducted arbitrations in English, Spanish, Portuguese and French.

KENDISTA WANTAH

KENDISTA WANTAH, COUNSEL

Kendista graduated from Universitas Katolik Parahyangan where he actively participated and performed with distinction in international moot court competitions. Kendista thereafter practiced commercial litigation and arbitration – both national and international – with leading dispute resolution firms in Indonesia. He also clerked for one of the foremost Indonesian arbitrators prior to joining SIAC.

Kendista is admitted to the Indonesian Bar. He is fluent in English and Bahasa Indonesia.

Email: kendistawantah@siac.org.sg

QIAN WU, COUNSEL (TEAM LEAD)

Qian is a graduate of Sichuan University (Bachelor’s degree in law), Xiamen University (Master’s degree in law) and the Geneva LL.M. in International Dispute Settlement (MIDS). Qian is also the Assistant Editor of Asian International Arbitration Journal.

Qualified in China, Qian practiced litigation and arbitration in Beijing with a Chinese law firm prior to joining SIAC.

Qian is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Email: qianwu@siac.org.sg

ALIONA BITKIVSKAJA

ALIONA BITKIVSKAJA, COUNSEL

Aliona graduated with an LL.M. in International Business Law from the National University of Singapore, specializing in International Arbitration, International Investment Law and Comparative Oil and Gas Law. She also holds a B.A. degree in Anthropology and Law from the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Prior to joining SIAC, Aliona worked at a global financial services provider and completed internships at international law firms in Europe and Asia.

Aliona is a New York-qualified lawyer. She is fluent in English, Russian and Lithuanian.

Email: alionabitkivskaja@siac.org.sg

KEVIN NASH, REGISTRAR

As Registrar of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre, Kevin leads the SIAC Secretariat in the provision of case management services. Over the course of the past decade, Kevin has overseen the administration of thousands of international cases under all versions of the SIAC Rules and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. Under the Singapore International Arbitration Act (Cap 143A), Kevin is the statutory taxation authority and he is empowered to authenticate and certify awards and arbitration agreements.

Kevin worked closely on the revisions to the SIAC Rules 2013, SIAC Rules 2016, SIAC Investment Arbitration Rules 2017, and leads the SIAC Secretariat on the drafting of the seventh edition of the SIAC Rules. He is a member of the Singapore delegation at UNCITRAL Working Group II (Dispute Settlement) and represents SIAC at UNCITRAL Working Group III (ISDS). Kevin is listed by Who’s Who Legal as one of the leading arbitration lawyers in Southeast Asia and a ‘Future Leader’ in the Global Guide.

Kevin is qualified as a Barrister and Solicitor with the Law Society of Upper Canada. He speaks English and French.

Email: kevinnash@siac.org.sg

GLORIA LIM, CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

As the Chief Executive Officer, Gloria works closely with the Chairman and the Board in formulating and fulfilling the vision and strategies for SIAC, and is responsible for the overall management and operations of the institution. Gloria was previously the Director of the Legal Industry Division in Singapore’s Ministry of Law and concurrently held the statutory appointment of Director of Legal Services, heading its Legal Services Regulatory Authority. As Director of the Legal Industry Division, she oversaw the development of Singapore’s legal sector, as well as the development and promotion of the international dispute resolution regime in Singapore. Gloria also heads the Singapore delegation involved in the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Working Group II (Dispute Settlement) discussions. Gloria brings with her cross-sector experience in legal policy, alternative dispute resolution and community mediation in MinLaw. She graduated from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and is called to the Singapore Bar. She also holds a Graduate Certificate in International Arbitration from NUS and an LL.M from Harvard University.

ARIEL YE

ARIEL YE, MEMBER

Ms Ye is the senior partner of King & Wood Mallesons PRC’s cross-border dispute resolution practice and a recognised expert on PRC-related dispute resolution in the Asia Pacific region.

Ms Ye is a former member of the board of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) and a member of the advisory board of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA), a former court member of Singapore